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Charging stations can be placed wherever electric power and adequate parking are available. Residences are by far the most common charging location. Home charging stations typically lack user authentication and separate metering, and may require a dedicated circuit. Some portable EV charging cable can be wall mounted. In addition to home stations, public stations have been sited along highways, in shopping centers, hotels, government facilities and at workplaces. Some gas stations offer basic EV charging stations. Some charging stations have been criticized as inaccessible, hard to find, out of order, and slow, thus slowing EV adoption. Public charge stations may charge a fee or offer free service based on government or corporate promotions. Charge rates vary from residential rates for electricity to many times higher, the premium is usually for the convenience of faster charging. Vehicles can typically be charged without the owner present, allowing the owner to partake in other activities. Sites include malls, freeway rest stops, transit stations, government offices, etc. Typically, AC Type 1/Type 2 plugs are used. Mobile charging involves another vehicle that brings the charge station to the Electric vehicle, the power is supplied via a fuel generator(typically gasoline or diesel), or a large battery. Wireless charging uses inductive charging mats that charge without a wired connection and can be embedded in parking stalls or even on roadways.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Power stations are generally connected to an electrical grid. Many power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into three-phase electric power. The relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electric current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas to generate electricity. Low-carbon power sources include nuclear power, and an increasing use of renewables such as solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric. Many engine–generators use a reciprocating engine. This can be a steam engine, such as most coal-powered fossil-fuel power plants use. Some engine–generators use a turbine as the engine, such as the industrial gas turbines used in peaking power plants and the microturbines used in some hybrid electric buses. The generator voltage (volts), frequency (Hz) and power (watts) ratings are selected to suit the load that will be connected. Portable power stations may require an external power conditioner to safely operate some types of electronic equipment. Engine-driven generators fueled on natural gas fuel often form the heart of small-scale (less than 1,000 kW) combined heat and power installations.
A solar cell panel, solar electric panel, photo-voltaic (PV) module or solar panel is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is called an array. Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment. Photovoltaic modules use light energy (photons) from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Most modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can be either the top layer or the back layer. Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are also available. The cells are usually connected electrically in series, one to another to the desired voltage, and then in parallel to increase current. The power (in watts) of the module is the mathematical product of the voltage (in volts) and the current (in amperes) of the module. The manufacturing specifications on solar panels are obtained under standard condition, which is not the real operating condition the solar panels are exposed to on the installation site.